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Proteas of the Summer Rainfall Region, South Africa

Regions designated as follows:

D = Drakensberg and foothills (n/s = north/south of Majuba)

H = Highveld

L = Lowveld and Coastal Forelands (c = Cape only)


1. Habitat high altitude mist belts. Inflorescences 80-100 mm long. Florets stalked. Leaves 25 mm broad. Usually shrublike in habit, up to 10 m tall. Fa galpinii FOREST BEECH Dn

1' Habitat forests and forest margins. Inflorescences 160 mm long. Leaves 25-30mm broad. A tree to 25m tall. Fa macnaughtonii TERBLANZ BEECH DL

1" Habitats variable: bushveld and escarpment. Trees 4-10 m tall goto 2

2. Inflorescences 250-300 mm long. Leaves 25-60 mm broad, stalk short and thick, underside densely velvety when young. Fa rochetiana BROAD-LEAF BEECH Dn

2' Inflorescences 120-150 mm long. Florets not stalked. Leaves 13-20 mm broad, stalk 20 mm long. Fa saligna TRANSVAAL BEECH HL

Leucadendron CONEBUSHES.

1. Fruit trigonal, less than 5mm wide (section Trigona), released after two months. Plants killed by fire, erect with a single basal stem. Ld pondoensis PONDOLAND TRIGOSPERM CONEBUSH Lc

1' Fruit winged, greter than 5mm wide (section Alata), stored in cones on plant. Plants resprouting with multiple stems. Ld spissifolium SPEAR-LEAF CONEBUSH goto 2

2. Leaves 8mm broad, oblanceolate, similar in both sexes. Conspicuous involucre of acute, ivory-white bracts surrounds male heads Ld spissifolium natalensis NATAL SPEAR-LEAF CONEBUSH L

2' Leaves narrow, 3mm/4mm broad, curved like a sickle. Involucre of bracts indistinct from stem leaves in male plants Ld spissifolium oribinum ORIBI SPEAR-LEAF CONEBUSH L

Leucospermum PINCUSHIONS

1. Pollen presenter narrowly conical, indistinct from style goto 2

1' Pollen presenter broadly conical, distinct from style goto 3

2. Leaves distinctly veined. Plants mat-like, to 0.4 m tall, with many stems from a rootstock. Ls gerrardii SOBOLIFEROUS CYLINDRIC PINCUSHION DnL

2' Leaves smooth. Stems erect to 2 m, many arising from a rootstock. Ls saxosum ESCARPMENT CYLINDRIC PINCUSHION Dn

3. Leaves 6-30 mm wide, 3-10 toothed. Stems bases covered with warts, many arising from rootstock. Ls cuneiforme WART-STEMMED CYLINDRIC PINCUSHION Lc

3' Leaves 30-50 mm wide, 7-10 toothed. Stem bases smooth, many arising from a rootstock. Ls innovans TRANSKEI CYLINDRIC PINCUSHION L


1. Inflorescences wine glass-shaped, involucral bracts erect with most of inner surface hidden during flowering goto 2

1' Inflorescences bowl-shaped, involucral bracts splayed to nearly horizontal with much of the inner surfaces clearly visible during flowering goto 4

2. Inner involucral bracts bearded, slightly spoon-shaped (section Speciosae). Leaves 120-250mm long, grey, with a 10-15mm long stalk. Pr lorifolia STRAP-LEAF BEARDED SUGARBUSH Lc

2' Inner involucral bracts oval, not spoon-shaped nor bearded (section Exertae), curving outwards at the tips. Heads small: 50-70 mm long. Leaves 50-110 mm long, green. Pr subvestita LIPPED WHITE SUGARBUSH D

2" Inner involucral bracts spoon-shaped, not bearded (section Ligulatae). Leaves 80-170 mm long, silver-haired or green-hairless, tightly clustered at ends of branches, no stalk. Pr roupelliae SILVER SPOON-BRACT SUGARBUSH goto 3

3. Plant erect, 3-8 m tall, with a single trunk. Pr roupelliae roupelliae SILVER SPOON-BRACT SUGARBUSH HDL

3' Plant sprawling, forming mats to 0.3 m tall (single-stemmed, not resprouting). Pr roupelliae hamiltonii DWARF SILVER SPOON-BRACT SUGARBUSH Dn

4. Stems hairless goto 6

4' Stems hairy when young, maturing to sparsely hairy goto 5

5. SAVANNA SUGARBUSHES (Section Lasiocephalae).

5' Involucral bracts with rusty-brown hairs on outer surface. Leaves hairy, occ. maturing to nearly hairless with hairs on midrib. Flowerheads often in clusters of 2-5. Otherwise very variable. Pr welwitzchii DWARF SAVANNA SUGARBUSH HL

5" Involucral bracts with silvery hairs on outer surface. Leaves slightly hairy when young, maturing to hairless, occ. deciduous. Flowerheads usually solitary. Otherwise very variable Pr gaguedi AFRICAN SAVANNA SUGARBUSH HDn

6. Shrub or tree, 1-8m tall, erect or multi-stemmed from an underground rootstock. Inflorescence medium-sized: style 40-60mm long. Leaves variable: 70-250mm long, 4-45mm wide. Involucral bracts white, cream, pink or red, short silvery-hairs

6' Small shrubs less than 1m tall (rarely to 1.5m: Pr drac), multi- or single-stemmed (Pr nubi). Inflorescences small: styles 20-40mm long (45-60mm: Pr drac) goto 7

6" Large shrubs or trees greater than 2m tall (occ. 1m: Pr rubr), single-stemmed when mature (multi-stemmed in Pr laet). Inflorescences large: 60-80mm long (50-55mm: Pr laet) goto 9

7. GRASSVELD SUGARBUSHES (Section Leiocephalae).

7' Plant erect, highly branched from a single trunk. Leaves 40-60mm long, 7-13mm wide. Inflorescences small: styles 35-40mm long. Pr nubigena CLOUD GRASSVELD SUGARBUSH Ds

7" Plants resprouting from a lignotuber, multi-stemmed. Leaves 60-140 mm long goto 8

8. Inflorescence medium-sized: style 45-60mm long. Leaves 25-45mm wide. Stems erect, unbranched, 5-10mm diam. Pr dracomontana ALPINE GRASSVELD SUGARBUSH Ds

8' Inflorescence small: style 20-40mm long. Leaves 7-30mm wide. Stems erect, usually unbranched, 2-5mm diam. Pr simplex DWARF GRASSVELD SUGARBUSH D(H)L

8" Inflorescence small: style 30-35mm long. Leaves 5-20mm wide, secund (pointing upwards). Stems creeping, rarely erect, often branched, 2-4mm diam. Pr parvula DAINTY GRASSVELD SUGARBUSH HDn

9. MOUNTAIN SUGARBUSHES (Section Patentiflorae).

9' Outer involucral bracts densely hairy goto Y

9" Outer involucral bracts hairless. Trees 4-8 m tall goto Z

Y. Inflorescences large: style 60-70mm long. Leaves 30-65mm wide. Single-stemmed. Involucral bracts densely covered in a thick brown layer of hairs. Petal tips white-haired. Pr rubropilosa TRANSVAAL MOUNTAIN SUGARBUSH Dn

Y' Inflorescence medium-sized: style 50-55mm long. Leaves 15-35mm wide. Usually with 2-6 stems arising from a rootstock. Involucral bracts densely covered in fine silver-white or rusty hairs. Petal tips tawny-haired. Pr laetans BLYDE MOUNTAIN

Z. Inflorescences large: style 65-80mm long. Leaves 25-50mm wide, occ. slightly curved, deep green, very woody. Involucral bracts greenish-white. Pr comptonii SADDLEBACK MOUNTAIN SUGARBUSH D

Z' Inflorescences large: style 60-65mm long. Leaves 8-16mm wide, sickle-shaped, grass-green. Involucral bracts deep red/black Pr curvata BARBERTON MOUNTAIN SUGARBUSH Dn

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